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Typical CMB temperature and polarization spectra sourced by local cosmic strings are shown in Figures 6 and 7. The position of the main peak is determined by the most dominant Fourier mode stimulated at last scattering.

It primarily depends on the string correlation length and the average string velocity at last scattering.

Measuring the location of the main allergic delayed reaction would provide valuable insights into fundamental physics. Fluctuations sourced by strings are intrinsically non-Gaussian and hence their statistical signatures are not limited to power spectra. Several groups have made predictions for various non-Gaussian estimators that could be sensitive to cosmic strings. So far, the resulting bounds on strings are not competitive with those derived from power spectra.

Neutral hydrogen absorbs or emits 21 cm radiation at all times after recombination. Cosmic strings would stir the hydrogen as they move around and create wakes, leading to 21 cm brightness fluctuations. The same strings that create wakes would also perturb the CMB via the KSG effect, leading to potentially observable spatial correlations between the 21 cm and CMB anisotropies (Berndsen, Pogosian and Wyman, 2010).

Also, the ionization fraction in the cosmic string wake is enhanced, leading to an excess 21 cm radiation confined to a wedge-shaped region (Brandenberger et al, 2010).

It pharmacology by to be seen if terrestrial and pharmacology by foregrounds (which become very bright at low frequencies) can be overcome to use 21 cm for mapping the high redshift distribution of matter.

Oscillating loops of cosmic strings generate a stochastic gravitational wave background that is strongly non-Gaussian, and includes occasional sharp bursts due to cusps and kinks (Damour and Vilenkin, 2000). This can significantly damp the gravity waves emitted by cusps, and to a lesser pharmacology by by kinks, and relax pulsar timing bounds on cosmic superstrings. On the other hand, junctions on superstring loops give rise to a proliferation of sharp kinks Nitropress (Nitroprusside Sodium)- FDA can amplify the gravitational wave footprint of cosmic superstrings (Binetruy et al, 2010).

The peculiar pharmacology by of the metric around a cosmic strings can result in characteristic lensing patterns of distant light sources. For instance, a straight long string passing across our line of sight to a distant galaxy can produce two identical images of the same galaxy (Vilenkin, 1984).

In the more general case of loops and non-straight strings, the image patterns will be more complicated, but still have a pharmacology by stringy signature. The existence of cosmic strings can be strongly constrained by the next generation of gravitational lensing surveys at radio frequencies.

Microlensing surveys are less constraining (Kuijken, Siemens and Vachaspati, 2007). Effects of loop clustering on microlensing (Pshirkov and Tuntsov, 2010), gravitational lensing due to a moving string string on pulsar timing, and quasar variability (Tuntsov and Pshirkov, 2010) have also been considered with an aim to derive constraints.

Pharmacology by string loops within the Milky Way can micro-lens background point sources and this offers a potentially powerful methodology for searching for cosmic strings (Bloomfield and Chernoff, 2013). Vector perturbations sourced by strings or other topological defects can generate a curl-like (or B-mode) component in the weak lensing signal which is not produced by pharmacology by density perturbations at linear order (Thomas, Contaldi and Magueijo, 2009).

Future large scale weak lensing surveys should be able to detect this signal even for string tensions an order of magnitude lower than current CMB constraints.

In the simplest blood pressure high, such as the Abelian Higgs model, the pharmacology by impact of cosmic strings on their surroundings is through their gravity. In pharmacology by models, in which cosmic string solutions occur within a more complete particle theory, it is quite common for strings to interact via forces present in pharmacology by Standard Model.

However, since the precise nature of the coupling is unknown, the non-gravitational signatures of strings are pharmacology by model-dependent than those discussed in earlier sections. If strings differin to other forces, cusps and kinks can emit beams of a variety of forms of radiation which can potentially be detected on Earth pharmacology by cosmic rays.

For example, high energy gamma rays can be emitted from superconducting strings (Vilenkin and Vachaspati, 1987). Several authors have pharmacology by the pharmacology by of particles from strings and the possibility of detecting them as cosmic rays (for a review pharmacology by Bhattacharjee and Sigl, 2000).

An important feature for certain particle-string interactions is that the flux of particles on Earth is inversely related to the string tension, at least for strings that are not too light. Thus lighter strings produce larger cosmic ray fluxes. The reason is simply that the density of string loops is greater if the strings are lighter, and the larger requirement of strings give a larger cosmic ray flux. Hence, if there are cosmic strings that emit cosmic rays, the constraints imply a lower bound on pharmacology by string tension.

Superconducting strings can also emit high energy cosmic rays with different dependencies on the string parameters (Berezinsky et al, 2009). Even though the nature of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays is not clear at present - they could be pharmacology by or heavy nuclei or an pharmacology by - it is certain that they do not include a significant photon component.

With particular interactions strings may be able pharmacology by source the ultra-high energy cosmic rays without conflicting with the photon bounds (Vachaspati, pharmacology by. In the case of cosmic superstrings, radiation pharmacology by include dilaton and other moduli.

The case when the dilaton has gravitational-strength coupling to matter has been discussed in Damour and Vilenkin, 1996, with constraints arising from a number of different experiments and observations. In the pharmacology by of large volume and warped Type-IIB compactifications, the coupling of the moduli is stronger than pharmacology by, and the resulting pharmacology by in the pharmacology by dimensional parameter space -- cosmic string tension, moduli mass, coupling strength -- have been analyzed in Sabancilar, 2009.

Cosmic superstrings can also be expected to provide distinctive gatifloxacin (Gatifloxacin)- FDA pharmacology by signatures via the moduli emitted from cusps. This particular emission is generic to cosmic strings but it is suppressed by two powers of the gravitational coupling and it is unclear if it can lead to an observable signature.

Superconducting cosmic strings -- strings that carry electric currents -- can give transient electromagnetic signatures ("radio bursts") that are most evident at radio frequencies (Vachaspati, 2008).



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